Nationale Feld Bataillon“ oder „Bataillon der Mobilen Legion“

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  • HKDW
    this may be helpfull, I did this for research of a sculptor

    This time a bit about the Bavarian National Guard second classe, or mobile legions and finally National Field Battalions
    The Field Battalions where just those National Guard second class battalions which declared that they wanted to fight outside the Bavarian border.
    The uniforms were consequently identical – the only distinction seemed to be that they received a colour as for the line infantry while up to then they carried a different design.
    The field battalions fought side by side with the line infantry and had their baptism of fire at Hanau 1813 (with a defeat) and continued to serve in the 1814 campaign.
    As usual there are some conflicting information and moreover I am short on contemporary prints. The most valuable is the battle painting of Kobell about the battle of Bar sur Aube in 1814. I regard Kobell as very reliable artist.
    The shako for example – should have a rear and front visor or peak – alas my photos about the battle painting are a bit too small to be sure, but seemingly yes, also confirmed by another one from the ASK Brown collection.
    Still – I wonder.
    The same is the shield or fittings as on the front of the helmets, yes or know, conflicting sources as well, Kobell shows them, the original regulation, doesn’t as well as the ASK Brown prints doesn’t as well.
    It is interesting to know that each company had 30 shooters or in German Schützen, they should be armed with a rifle, and here usually all kinds of rifles would fit, and it is unlikely that they would have used the copy of the Austrian rifle, there those were barely around to equip the Schützen in the line and light battalions.
    Also I attached a print of Bavarians shooting in 3 ranks, the 3rd rank wouldn’t fire but change the musket with the second rank, so this rank would fire than again.
    In case you want to show some good firing poses, those would be my option. You also see that all 3 ranks were standing – no kneeling.
    Bavarian National Guard second class – Mobile legions 1813 / 1814

    In time of danger the National Guard second class was raised, as in 1809 and as well in 1813, to serve against inner and out enemies. In every district so called “mobile legions” were raised which carried the name of the district and were 4 to 8 according to man power.
    After the results of the 1812 campaign which had caused the destruction of the active army all reserves were mobilized.
    The “mobile legions” of the National Guard of the second class had to play an important role.
    According to the degree of the of February 1813 each battalion was 4 companies strong, each company of 165 heads.
    1 captain
    1 first lieutenant
    2 second lieutenants
    1 Feldwebel (high grade NCO)
    2 sergeants
    6 corporals
    2 drummers
    10 Gefreiten (lance corporals)
    140 National Guards
    From the lieutenants – one, from the sergeants or corporals – four, from the lance corporals – four and from the national guards – 26 are to be selected to form the Schützen – Abteilung (shooters detachment). The schützen are chosen from the most adroit men and best shooters, they should be armed with a rifle or rifled musket . When a Schütze is lost he must be immediately replaced so that the strength of 30 Schützen remains intact all the time.
    Each battalion staff has amongst other specialists – also 2 buglers for the Schützen.
    Each company consists of two “platoons” Zügen, without taking the Schützen into account.
    Officers for the battalion :
    One commander and an adjutant (I presume mounted) – the battalion staff consisted additional to the commander and adjutant 1 battalion – quartermaster, Auditor (judge), 1 surgeon, 1 Junker (sort of junior nobleman), and two buglers for the Schützen Abteilung.

    Each battalion did carry a colour which was carried on a simple pole with a lance top – the colour was 5 Schuh (1 Schuh = 29.186 cm, in total 145. 93 cm) in square – it was made of seven alternating stripes of light blue and white. Unauthorized changes were tolerated by the king. For that see the colour of the Rezartkreis (see black and white print).
    As to the Pappenheim colour of the mobile legion of the Rezart Kreis – the battalion which was raised from the area of the county of Pappenheim – they wanted to have a special colour and they asked the countess to be granted to coat of arms of the Pappenheim, the countes herself stiched it and made the colour, above the coat of arms of the Pappenheim a smaller one of Bavaria was painted on a piece of silk and sewn above the Pappenheim coat of arms.
    The top as seen on the black and white print is not of the usual Mobile Legionen design but that of the old Pappenheim cuirassiers standard of the 30 years war which was copied, the crossed swords are clearly visible.
    However seemingly when some of the battalions demanded field service outside the Bavarain border they were granted the “diamond” design colour – that is the usual Bavarian colour as know still today, see also the Kobell print which is indicating that.

    The hitherto worn uniform was changed, the grey great coat received a standing red colour. When the unit had to serve longer it was issued with a light blue coat, with one row of white buttons, red collar, cuffs and piping, the lining of the coat was light blue as well, light blue shoulder stripes piped red. Trousers also of light blue cloth ( according to Peter Hess with a red stripe on the side), short black gaiters. However also white trousers /overalls could be worn as well. See the paining of Kobell about Bar sur Aube.
    Cross belts, instead of the sabre a bayonet - NCOs did carry a sabre, like NCOs in the line infantry with NCO sabre strap. No NCOs’ canes were used.
    Officers – no epaulettes – but on the collar the usual rank design with stripes and laces made of silver and a silver gorget (hause – col).
    Officers had a sword sword with silver sabre strap.
    The shakos received fittings as for the helmets of the line infantry (like the brass shield, see the Kobell painting), instead of the “roses” (an oval shaped half round sort of pom pom) pom poms (like a ball) in the approbriate colour above the cockade, that of the officers was silvern.
    In my view – again Kobell shows them well at the Bar sur Aube painting, he shows quite a low shako and of course a lot of other interesting details, like one of the mounted officers with a hat.
    The shako was made of felt and had a leather top. According to the instruction it should have also a front and back visor (again check Kobell on that)
    The NCOs had a band of white wool of 1.5 Zoll (3,6483 cm) around the top, Feldwebel maybe two as for staff officiers), officers of silver, staff offciers also a double band. The band of the officers was 1.5 Zoll (1 Bavarian inch = 2.4322 cm, in total 3.6483 cm) wide and the second one for staff officers 0,5 Zoll ( 1.2161 cm).
    The Schützen had a green plume for distinction (and most likely a powder horn)
    When the schützen were not used in skirmish order, they were united and placed at the right wing of the battalion.
    As to the fittings or shield (as for line infantry on the helmets) there is nothing of it in the original instruction, just plain with a cockade (as one of the prints show) – Kobell however shows them, I am inclined to follow Kobell.
    In August several battalions declared that they wanted to serve outside the borders of Bavaria and served along the line units.
    They then were awarded with the colour of the battalion of line units, this colour was of the usual Bavarian designs (of blue white diamonds) – and were named National Feld Battailon (national field battalion), 20 of them were designated to bear the name.
    The baptism of fire was at the battle of Hanau and they continued to serve along with the line battalions in the campaign of 1814 in France.

    See also the contemporary print of the National Guard second class, where a lot of different officers gear can be seen, here the usual fittings – the brass shield on the shako is missing.
    Also a comment for the drummers, they should have had 3 “chevrons” at the sleeve, Kobell doesn’t show any, and as usual I would go with Kobell and not sculpting them.

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  • Nationale Feld Bataillon“ oder „Bataillon der Mobilen Legion“

    Guter Abend,

    Ich erlaube mir, Ihnen eine Frage zu Nationalgarde 2. Klasse (Mobil Legion) 1813-1815 in Bayern zu fragen.
    Die Uniformen sind identisch, wie „Nationale Feld Bataillon“ oder „Bataillon der Mobilen Legion“ sind sie ihnen zu unterscheiden?
    Vielen Dank für Ihre Hilfe.

    Mit freundlichen Grüßen.

    Zuletzt geändert von 5859lannes; 12.07.2017, 19:00.